Bitcoin vs. Quantum Computers: US Government Says Post-Quantum World Is Getting Closer, CISA Warns Contemporary Encryption Could Break

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According to the US Cyber ​​Security and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), while quantum computers are unable to break public key encryption algorithms, public and private entities need to prepare for future threats against cryptography that is not quantum resistant. Most of today’s digital communications, including cryptocurrencies, take advantage of public key encryption and CISA believes that when “quantum computers reach high levels of computing power and speed, they will be able to break public key cryptography algorithms”. those in use today.”

The US government has warned nation-states and private companies to actively pursue quantum computing methods that could jeopardize current cryptographic standards.

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Along with other digital communications such as email, messaging services and online banking, cryptocurrencies that take advantage of contemporary encryption techniques may someday be broken by quantum computers. This is according to recent CISA Report Published at the end of August. The US government body has emphasized in the report that a transition to post-quantum cryptography is necessary. “Don’t wait until quantum computers are used by our adversaries to function,” the CISA report details. “Early preparation will ensure a smoother migration to the post-quantum cryptography standard once it becomes available.”

Bitcoin vs. Quantum Computers: US Government Says Post-Quantum World Is Getting Closer, CISA Warns Contemporary Encryption May Be Broken
A qubit (or quantum bit) is a quantum mechanical version of the contemporary bits used by most computers today.
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Discussions about whether quantum computing will be able to break public key encryption have been raging ever since scientists made progress entangle the first pair of quantum bits back in 1998. Quantum computers use complex physics to calculate powerful equations related to today’s contemporary crypto and mathematical systems. Since 1998, super quantum computers have improved 14 calcium ion qubits entangled in 2011, 16 superconducting qubits in 2018, and 18 entangled qubits in 2018. CISA says that quantum computers will create new opportunities but the technology also has negative consequences in terms of encryption security.

“Nation-states and private companies are actively pursuing the capabilities of quantum computers,” the CISA report details. “Quantum computing opens up exciting new possibilities; however, the consequences of this new technology include threats to existing cryptographic standards.”

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While researchers say bitcoin’s public key technology leverages ‘multiple quantum-resistant one-way hash functions’, few blockchain projects prepare for a post-quantum world.

Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin take advantage of contemporary encryption methods and have been Told There has been a need to protect cryptocurrencies with post-quantum encryption several times over the years. In 2020, when industrial firm Honeywell revealed that it had built a quantum computer that effectively leverages six effective qubits, crypto proponents began discussing the potential future implications of quantum computers on bitcoin and 256-bit encryption. done. Some digital currency proponents have already started preparing for a quantum computer encryption-breaking event. Cambridge Quantum Computing In the midst of working with Honeywell Project that “can be implemented on any blockchain network.”

Despite the efforts of cryptographers, some researchers whole-heartedly believe in large-scale quantum computers will never come to fruition, Others think the timeline is much closer than people expected and some scientists have Told It could be about five years from now. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) think 15 years is more reasonable. Meanwhile, Ethereum developers are researching quantum resistance With the Hyperledger Foundation’s distributed ledger project Ursa. Cryptographers preparing for the post-quantum world believe that encryption techniques such as AES-128 and RSA-2048 will not provide sufficient protection against quantum computer attacks.

Andreas Antonopoulos: ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’s Little Genius Design Element Isn’t an Accident’

The debate has been going on for years and many people think that warnings from the government and recent quantum-based technological achievements by Honeywell, Google, Microsoft and others, are the necessary impetus for people to adopt post-quantum cryptography.

Bitcoin vs. Quantum Computers: US Government Says Post-Quantum World Is Getting Closer, CISA Warns Contemporary Encryption May Be Broken
“A bitcoin address is calculated by running your public key through multiple hash functions,” says software developer Chris Passia, who explains how the bitcoin public key runs through several quantum-resistant one-way hash functions. Is.

Numerous articles, research reports, and mainstream headlines Claims Quantum Computing Will break any contemporary encryption and also Predict traffic jams and accidents just before they happened. However, bitcoin proponents have stated on various occasions that the SHA256 encryption employed by Satoshi’s creation is a formidable foe against a post-quantum world.

“Your public key in bitcoin is not (initially) made public. When you share your bitcoin address with others so that they can send you bitcoin, your bitcoin address is just a hash of your public key, not the public key, “Software Developer and Cryptocurrency Supporter Chris Pacquia Wrote in 2014. “What does this mean in English? A hash function is a one-way cryptographic function that takes an input and turns it into a cryptographic output. By an aside, I mean you can’t get the input from the output. It is used to encrypt something. as is [and] Then lose the key. ,

software developer 2014 paper Ends on topic:

All this is a complicated way of saying that while an attacker with a quantum computer could obtain the private key from the public key, he could not obtain the public key from a bitcoin address because the public key ran through multiple quantum-resistant one-way hashes. function.

one in Video Characteristic of the bitcoin evangelist Andreas Antonopoulos, he said that using a different bitcoin address each time is the key to bitcoin security. Antonopoulos stressed that Satoshi’s two cryptography design choices are “absolutely genius”. “What you use, which is a bitcoin address, is a double-hashed version of your public key – meaning the public key is never seen by anyone unless you spend the transaction. By not claiming… this little genius design element is not an accident,” Antonopoulos continued in his keynote address. “What it does is it creates a second layer of abstraction of the underlying cryptographic algorithm used in elliptic curve digital signatures that you can make future upgrades to.”

Antonopoulos continued:

which means that the past is secure because it is hidden behind another veil of a different algorithm and the future can be changed because you can present an address that is not a hash of an elliptic curve, or it is a different elliptic curve is not a hash of , or it is a hash of a larger elliptic curve, or a hash of one of its signature algorithms that is quantum-resistant that has nothing to do with elliptic curves. So, you can make further modifications to secure the future, and you have got past security because you hid the past.

What do you think about the US government’s recent warning about quantum computers? Let us know what you think about this topic in the comment section below.

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