Businesshala analyzed nearly a decade of legal and financial records and discovered 131 federal judges who illegally heard cases where they had financial interests.
The judges offered several explanations for their errors. Many convicted court clerks. Others allege misspellings on the form. Some said they took only minimal action in cases, such as confirming settlements—but the law doesn’t make exceptions for playing only a minor role.
The graphic below details the journal’s findings, including how federal judges have violated the law, how often they hear cases unfairly, and what they have to say about it: